ticma2022 – SUE Conferences

Archive by Category "ticma2022"

Extended-Cyclic Operators

Nareen Bamerni

1 Department of Mathematics, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31972/ticma22.01


In this paper, we study new classes of operators on separable Banach spaces which are called extended-cyclic operators and extended-transitive operators. We study some properties of their vectors which are called extended-cyclic vectors. We show that if  is an extended-cyclic vector for , then  is also an extended-cyclic vector for  for all . Then, we show the extended-cyclicity is preserved under qsuasi-similarity. Moreover, we prove that an operator is extended-cyclic if and only if it is extended-transitive. As a consequence, the set of all extended-cyclic vectors is a dense and  set. Finally, we find some spectral properties of these operators. Particularly, the point spectrum of the adjoint of an extended-cyclic operator has at most one element of modules greater than one. Moreover, if the spectrum of an operator has a connected component subset of , then  is not extended-cyclic.

Key Words: Extended-Cyclic, Banach spaces, G_δ set.

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Purely semismall Compressible Modules

1 College of Education for pure science, Diyala University        

2 Computer Engineering, Al-mansur University College    

3 College of science, Diyala University

 a) mukdadqaess2016@yahoo.com 


c) shahadjasim@uodiyala.edu.iq

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31972/ticma22.02


 Let R be a ring with 1 and D be unitary left Module over R. In this paper, we present purely semi small compressible Modules. Also, we give remarks and examples, many properties of such Modules are investigated.

Key Words:

Semi small Submodule,  prime Modules, pure Modules, semi small compressible Module.

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Comparison Between Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis to Determine the Most Important Affecting Factors for Students’ Admission and Their Interests in The Specializations: A Sample of Salahaddin University-Erbil

Mohammed O ABDULLAH1), Rizgar M AHMED2), Yener ALTUN3)





Author Emails


  1. b) ahmed@su.edu.krd


DOI: https://doi.org/10.31972/ticma22.03


The main goal of this thesis is to determine the most important effective factors for student admission and his/her interests in the specialization by using multivariate methods. Therefore, it focused on using factor analysis by identifying a number of the obtained factors and cluster analysis by classifying them into five clusters. Furthermore, the factor analysis and cluster analysis results will be compared to each other. Moreover, this study depends on the analysis of 350 questionnaire forms, distributed by random stratified sample method on students in the first stage of three different colleges, including Scientific colleges and Humanity colleges of Salahaddin University in Northern Iraq for the academic year 2018-2019. Thus, the IBM SPSS Statistics V: 25 software programs have been used in data analysis. Additionally, the results have demonstrated that Reliability is accepted, and also in factor analysis, the rate of the total variance interpretation is %62.157. Moreover, the most common variables between the factor analysis and cluster analysis can be considered the most important and influential variables for student admission and their interests in choosing a specialization. Consequently, the first factor and the first cluster have five significant variables in common; they are V1, V2, V3, V4 and V5 (the system is helpful for student admission to colleges to get their desired professions). The second factor and the second cluster have four influential variables in common they are V24, V32, V35 and V37 (the new system may help master’s and PhD students to be admitted to colleges and get competitive results by utilizing their accounts). In the fourth factor and the fourth cluster, there is one variable in common, which is V18 (decreasing the number of students admitted in the parallel system by using the graduated students who must not be able to refill admission forms). Ultimately, the conclusion has shown a kind of approach and similarity between factor analysis and cluster analysis.

Key Words: Factor Analysis, Cluster Analysis, Cluster Analysis.

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Practical Analysis of IEEE 802.11ax Wireless Protocol in Wi-Fi Boosters Environments

Ghassan A. QasMarrogy

Author Affiliations

 (College of Engineering, Department of Communication and Computer Engineering, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq


DOI: https://doi.org/10.31972/ticma22.04


All the world now is depending on networks to share information between the users, where different data types are transferred wirelessly from network to network. Using wireless LANs are important to connect the users and share the data, these Wireless LANs have different types of obstacles that affect the data sharing or the wireless signal, such as, compatibility wireless protocol types, range coverage, walls penetration, moving devices, different routing protocols, data transferred types, weak signal, and many more. In this paper a practical analysis will be made to the latest IEEE 802.11ax wireless protocol to be compared with two types of Wi-Fi booster’s networks, Mesh and Extender Wi-Fi, while transferring 4k video size data rate, inside a room and on different rooms for wall penetration analysis, while measuring the throughput, delay, and signal strength metrics. The main importance of this paper is to give a more practical understanding and avoid the main problems of using the wireless protocol 802.11ax in different network types.

Key Words: IEEE 802.11ax, Wi-Fi Boosters, Signal Strength, Mesh Network, Extender Network.

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Improving Prediction Accuracy of Lasso and Ridge Regression as an Alternative to LS Regression to Identify Variable Selection Problems

Pareekhan Abdulla Omer

1 Statistics department- College of Administration and Economics – Salahaddin University – Erbil / Iraq

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31972/ticma22.05


This paper introduces the Lasso and Ridge Regression methods, which are two popular regularization approaches. The method they give a penalty to the coefficients differs in both of them. L1 Regularization refers to Lasso linear regression, while L2 Regularization refers to Ridge regression. As we all know, regression models serve two main purposes: explanation and prediction of scientific phenomena. Where prediction accuracy will be optimized by balancing each of the bias and variance of predictions, while explanation will be gained by constructing interpretable regression models by variable selection. The penalized regression method, also known as Lasso regression, adds bias to the model’s estimates and reduces variance to enhance prediction. Ridge regression, on the other hand, introduces a minor amount of bias in the data to get long-term predictions. In the presence of multicollinearity, both regression methods have been offered as an alternative to the least square approach (LS). Because they deal with multicollinearity, they have the appropriate properties to reduce numerical instability caused by overfitting. As a result, prediction accuracy can be improved. For this study, the Corona virus disease (Covid-19) dataset was used, which has had a significant impact on global life. Particularly in our region (Kurdistan), where life has altered dramatically and many people have succumbed to this deadly sickness. Our data is utilized to analyze the benefits of each of the two regression methods. The results show that the Lasso approach produces more accurate and dependable or reliable results in the presence of multicollinearity than Ridge and LS methods when compared in terms of accuracy of predictions by using NCSS10, EViews 12 and SPSS 25.

Key Words: Methodology, Regularization, Lasso regression, Ridge regression, multicollinearity.

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Assessment of natural radionuclides in cooking salts available in Kurdistan region-Iraq

Adeeb O. Jafir1,a , Hallo M. Abdullah 1, Ali H. Ahmed1

Author Affiliations

 Department of physics, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Hawler, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

b) hallo.sallay@su.edu.krd

c) ali.ahmed@su.edu.krd

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31972/ticma22.06


Eighteen local and imported salt samples were collected in markets of Kurdistan region. The cooking salt as an essential foodstuff element in meals of population in all over the world has been examined for radioactivity assessment. Gamma ray spectroscopy of NaI (Tl) was used to obtain the spectra and measuring the specific radionuclide activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in salt samples.  The related radiological indices of radium equivalent (Raeq), indoor absorbed dose, indoor annual effective dose equivalent (Ein), the internal index (Hin), annual committed effective dose (Eing) and excess life time cancer (ELCR) were calculated which were below the world safety recommendation values declared by UNSCEAR2000 and WHO. Statistics of Pearson correlation were applied to the obtained data to establish the correlation between primordial radionuclide’s and radiological hazards.


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Integer-valued polynomials and binomially Noetherian rings


1Department of Mathematic, Faculty of Science and Healthy, Koya University. University Park Danielle Mitterrand Boulevard Koya, Erbil, Iraq.

2College of Information Technology and Computer Sciences, Catholic University in Erbil, Erbil, Iraq.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31972/ticma22.07


A torsion free as a Z- module ring R with unit is said to be a binomial ring if it is preserved as binomial symbol (a¦i)≔(a(a-1)(a-2)…(a-(i-1)))/i!,

for each a∈R and i ≥ 0. The polynomial ring of integer-valued in rational polynomial Q[X] is defined by Int (Z^X):={h∈Q[X]:h(Z^X)⊂Z} an important example for binomial ring and is non-Noetherian ring. In this paper the algebraic structure of binomial rings has been studied by their properties of binomial ideals. The notion of binomial ideal generated by a given set has been defined. Which allows us to define new class of Noetherian ring using binomial ideals, which we named it binomially Noetherian ring. One of main result the ring Int (Z^({x,y})) over variables x and y present as an example of that kind of class of Noetherian. In general the ring Int(Z^X) over the finite set of variables X and for a particular F subset in Z the rings Int(F^(〖{x〗_1,x_2,…,x_i} ),Z)={h∈Q[x_1,x_2,…,x_i ]:h(F^(〖{x〗_1,x_2,…,x_i} ))⊆ Z} both are presented as examples of that kind of class of Noetherian.

Key Words: Binomial ring, Integer-valued polynomial, Binomial ideal, Noetherian rings, binomially Noetherian rings.

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Secure Image Steganography by Utilizing DNA Properties

Yaseen Hikmat Ismael

1Department of Computer sciences College of Computer Sciences and Math University of Mosul

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31972/ticma22.08


In the last period, Steganography is commonly used as an alternative to encryption to achieve secret communication between parties. Many methods have emerged to achieve steganography, including the use of spatial domain, spread spectrum, transform domain, and etc.

       On the other hand, the methods of attackers have also developed in revealing hidden data and trying to retrieve it. To increase the security of the hiding process, some researchers have found hybrid methods that combine encryption and steganography processes.

The research aims to present a new method in steganography by taking advantage of the properties of DNA, which includes the random sequence of nitrogenous bases (A, C, G, T), the process of hybridization, which occurs between two single strands of DNA to form a double strand of DNA so that the bases in the first strand are complementary to the nitrogenous bases in the second strand.

The research includes the following steps: First, the secret image to be hidden is encrypted by encoding it into a series of nitrogenous bases, and then the XOR process is performed with a nitrogenous bases sequence for a DNA tape agreed upon between the sender and recipient, the hybridization process applied before and after the XOR process. The results show that encrypted image is much different from the original image and thus they added another level of security to the hidden image.

Secondly, the encrypted image resulting from the first step is hidden in the cover image and using a new method based on the use of the agreed-upon DNA tape as a key.

Key Words: DNA Properties, Secure Image Steganography, OTP key.

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Coherent Dynamics of Quantum Systems with Non-Uniform Fourier Space Excited by Laser Radiation

Sary Banjak1 and Vadim Savva2

1,2 Department of Higher Mathematics, Belarusian State Technological University, Minsk, Belarus.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31972/ticma22.09


The algorithm is presented to solve dynamical equations for excitation of molecular models with multiple energy levels. It uses only discrete structures: discrete orthogonal polynomials constructed specially in Fourier space of the probability amplitudes, discrete Fourier transform and leads to exact solution of the differential equations and to discrete distribution of the quantum systems by energy levels.

Key Words: Non-Uniform Fourier Space, Quantum Systems, Coherent Dynamics.

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New Results in Bi- Domination in Graphs

M. N. Al-Harere 1, a) and Athraa T. Breesam 2, b)

1 manal.n.alharere@uotechnology.edu.iq

2 A.T.Breesam@gmail.com

a, b Department of Applied Sciences,

University of Technology -Iraq

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31972/ticma22.10


In this paper, some new results are introduced for the bi-domination in graphs. Some properties of bi-domination number and bounds according to maximum, minimum degrees, order, and size have been determined. The effects of removing a vertex and removing or adding an edge are discussed on the bi-domination number of a graph. This study is important to know affected graphs by the deletion or addition of components.

Key Words: Domination number, bi-domination number, minimum dominating set.

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